第二篇讲述目前很多企业面临问题，文章讲CSR如何帮助他们指导这些问题。企业和社会之间是相互依赖与促进的关系。文章后三段分别用GE，Microsoft和 whole food market 三个企业为例展示CSR在企业运营中的体现。
Copy your neighbor
THERE' S no animal that symbolises rainforest diversity quite as spectacularly as the tropical butterfly. Anyone lucky enough to see these creatures flitting between patches of sunlight cannot fail to be impressed by the variety of their patterns. But why do they display such colourful exuberance? Until recently, this was almost as pertinent a question as it had been when the 19th-century naturalists, armed only with butterfly nets and insatiable curiosity, battled through the rainforests. These early explorers soon realised that although some of the bright colours are there to attract a male, others are warning signals.
They send out a message to any predators: "Keep off’, we' re poisonous." And because wearing certain patterns affords protection, other species copy them. Biologists use the term "mimicry rings" for these clusters of impostors and their evolutionary idol.
But here' s the conundrum. "Classical mimicry theory says that only a single ring should be found in any one area, explains George Beccaloni of the Natural History Museum, London The idea is that in each locality there should be just the one pattern that best protects its wearers. Predators would quickly learn to avoid it and eventually all mimetic species in a region should converge upon it. "The fact that this is patently not the case has been one of the major problems in mimicry research,” says Beccaloni. In pursuit of a solution to the mystery of mimetic exuberance, Beccaloni set off for one of the megacentres for butterfly diversity, the point where the western edge of the Amazon basin meets the foothills of the Andes in Ecuador. “It' s exceptionally rich, but comparatively well collected, so I pretty much knew what was there, says Beccaloni, The trick was to work out how all the butterflies were organized and how this related to mimicry.”
Working at the Jatun Sacha Biological Researeh Station on The banks of the Rio Napo, Beccaloni focused his attention on a group of butterflies called ithomiines. These distant relatives of Britain’s Camberwell Beauty are abundant throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. They are famous for their bright colours, toxic bodies and complex mimetic relationships. "They can comprise up to 85 per cent of the individuals in a mimicry ring and their patterns are mimicked not just by butterflies, but by other insects as diverse as damselflies and true bugs/' says Philip DeVries of the Milwaukee Public Museum’ s Center for Biodiversity Studies.
Even though all ithomiines are poisonous，it is in their interests to evolve to look like one another because predators that learn to avoid one species will also avoid others that resemble it This is known as Miillerian mimicry. Mimicry rings may also contain insects that are not toxic, but gain protection by looking likes a model species that is: an adaptation called Batesian mimicry. So strong is an experienced predator’s avoidance response that even quite inept resemblance gives some protection. "Often there will be a whole series of species that mimic, with varying degrees of verisimilitude, a focal or model species," says John Turner from the University of Leeds. "The results of these deceptions are some of the most exquisite examples of evolution known to science." In addition to colour, many mimics copy behaviours and even the flight pattern of their model species.
But why are there so many different mimicry rings? One idea is that species flying at the same height in the forest canopy evolve to look like one another. "It had been suggested since the 1970s that mimicry complexes were stratified by flight height," says DeVries. The idea is that wing colour patterns are camouflaged against the different patterns of light and shadow at each level in the canopy, providing a first line of defence against predators.” But the light patterns and wing patterns don’t match very well, he says. And observations show that the insects do not shift in height as the day progresses and the light patterns change. Worse still, according to DeVries, this theory doesn’t explain why the model species is flying at that particular height in the first place.
"When I first went out to Ecuador, I didn’t believe the flight height hypothesis and set out to test it." says Beccaloni." A few weeks with the collecting net convinced me otherwise. They really Hew that way." What he didn’t accept, however, was the explanation about light patterns. “I thought, if this idea really is true, and I can work out why, it could help explain why there are so many different warning patterns in any one place. Then we might finally understand how they could evolve in such a complex wav " The job was finally understand how they could evolve in such a complex way." The job was complicated by the sheer diversity of species involved at Jatun Sacha. Not only were there ithomiine butterfly species divided among eight mimicry rings, there were also other insect species, including 34 day-flying moths and a damselfly, all in a 200-hectare study area. Like many entomologists before him, Beccaloni used a large bag-like net to capture his prey. This allowed him to sample the 2.5 metres immediately above the forest floor. Unlike many previous workers, he kept very precise notes on exactly where he caught his specimens.
The attention to detail paid off. Beccaloni found that the mimicry rings were living at two quite separate altitudes. "Their use of the forest was quite distinctive/' he recalls. "For example, most members of the clear-winged mimicry ring would fly close to the forest floor, while the majority of the 12 species in the tiger-winged ring fly high up." Each mimicry ring had its own characteristic flight height.
However, this being practice rather than theory, things were a bit fuzzy. "They'd spend the majority of their time flying at a certain height. But they’d also spend a smaller proportion of their time flying at other heights," Beccaloni admits. Species weren' t slacked rigidly like passenger jets waiting to land, but they did appear to have a preferred airspace in the forest. So far, so good, but he still hadn’t explained what causes the various groups of ithomiines and their chromatic consorts to fly in formations at these particular heights.
Then Beccaloni had a bright idea. "I started looking at the distribution of ithomiine larval food plants within the canopy,'' he says. “For each one I’d record the height to which the host plant grew and the height above the ground at which the eggs or larvae were found. Once I got them back to the field station’s lab, it was just a matter of keeping them alive until they pupated and then hatched into adults which I could identify."
Sometimes ideas just pop up out of the blue. Or in Charlie Paton’s case, out of the rain. “I was in a bus in Morocco travelling through the desert,” he remembers. “it had been raining and the bus was full of hot, wet people. The windows steamed up and o went to sleep with a towel against the glass. When I woke, the thing was soaking wet. I had to wring it out. And it set me thinking. Why was it so wet?”
The answer, of course, was condensation. Back home in London, a physicist friend, Philip Davies, explained that the glass, chilled by the rain outside, had cooled the hot humid air inside the bus below its dew point, causing droplets of water to form on the inside of the window. Intrigued, Paton ---- a lighting engineer by profession ---- started rigging up his own equipment. “I made my own solar stills. It occurred to me that you might be able to produce water in this way in the desert, simply by cooling the air. I wondered whether you could make enough to irrigate fields and grow crops.”
Today, a decade on, his dream has taken shape as a giant greenhouse on a desert island off Abu Dhabi in the Persian Gulf ----- the first commercially viable version of his “seawater greenhouse.” Local scientists, working with Paton under a licence from his company Light Works, are watering the desert and growing vegetables in what is basically a giant dew-making machine that produces fresh water and cool air from sun and seawater. In awarding Paton first prize in a design competition two years ago, Macro Goldschmied, president of the Royal Institution of British Architects, called it “a truly original idea which has the potential to impact on the lives of millions of people living in coastal water-starved areas around the world.”
The design has three main parts(see Graphic). The greenhouse faces into the prevailing wind so that hot, dry desert air blows in through the front wall of perforated cardboard, kept wet and cool by a constant trickle of seawater pumped up from the nearby shoreline. The evaporating seawater cools and moistens the air. Last June, for example, when the temperature outside the Abu Dhabi greenhouse was 46℃. The cool, moist air allows the plants to grow faster, and because much less water evaporates from the leaves their demand for moisture drops dramatically. Paton’s crops thrived on a single litre of water per square metre per day, compared to 8 litres if they were growing outside.
The second feature also cools the air for the plants. Paton has constructed a double0layered roof with an outer layer of clear polythene and an inner, coated layer that reflects infrared light. Visible light can stream through to maximize photosynthesis, while heat from the infrared radiation is tripped in the space between the layers, away from the plants.
At the back of the greenhouse sits the third element the main water-production unit. Just before entering this unit, the humid air of the greenhouse mixes with the hot, dry air from between the two layers of the roof. This means the air can absorb more moisture as it passes through a second moist cardboard wall. Finally, the hot saturated air hits a condenser. This is a metal surface kept cool by still more seawater ----- the equivalent of the window on Paton’s Moroccan bus. Drops of pure distilled water form on the condenser and flow into a tank for irrigating the crops.
The greenhouse more or less runs itself. Sensors switch everything on when the sun rises and alter flows of air and seawater through the day in response to changes in temperature, humidity and sunlight. On windless days, fans ensure a constant flow of air through the greenhouse. “Once it is tuned to the local environment, you don’t need anyone there for it to work,” says Paton. “We can run the entire operation off one 13-amp plug, and in future we could make it entirely independent of the grid, powered from a few solar panels.”
The net effect is to evaporate seawater into hot desert air, then recondense the moisture as fresh water. At the same time, cool moist air flows through the greenhouse to provide ideal conditions for the crops. The key to the seawater greenhouse’s potential is its unique combination of desalination and air conditioning. By tapping the power of the sun it can cool as efficiently as a 500-kilowatt air conditioner while using less than 3 kilowatts of electricity. In practice, it evaporates 3000 litres of seawater a day and turns it into about 800 litres of fresh water --- just enough to irrigate the plants. The rest is lost as water vapour.
Critics point out that construction costs of £25 per square metre mean the water is twice as expensive as water from a conventional desalination plant. But the comparison is misleading, says Paton. The natural air conditioning in the greenhouse massively increases the value of that water. Because the plants need only an eighth of the water used by those grown conventionally, the effective cost is only a quarter that of water from a standard desalinator. And costs should plummet when mass production begins, he adds.
Best of all, the greenhouse should be environmentally friendly. “I suppose there might be aesthetic objections to large structures on coastal sites,” says Harris, “but it is a clean technology and doesn’t produce pollution or even large quantities of hot water.”
【原文参考依据-A段首句】Sometimes ideas just pop up(突然出现) out of the blue(出其不意). Or in Charlie Paton's case, out of the rain. by accident 偶然
【原文参考依据-A段第3行】‘it had been raining and the bus was full of hot, wet people. The windows steamed up(布满水汽) and I went to sleep with a towel against the glass.题目说ventilated是很通风的意思，可是文章第一段第三行说了：the bus was full of hot
【原文参考依据-A段倒数2-3行】The windows steamed up and I went to sleep with a towel against the glass. When I woke, the thing was soaking wet. I had to wring it out.
30. NOT GIVEN
【原文 参考依据-C段首句】Today, a decade on, his dream has taken shape as a giant greenhouse on a desert island off Abu Dhabi in the Persian Gulf- the first commercially viable version of his 'seawater greenhouse'.题中的immediately与句中的decade形成反义关系
32. hot dry air
【原文参考依据-D段3-4行】The front of the greenhouse faces into the prevailing wind so that hot dry air blows in through a front wall.
32题 hot dry air 注意图表的观察，D段第三行中的blows in through体现了图中的动态，所以32题为。
【原文参考依据-D段4-5行】The wall is made of perforated cardboard keptmoist by a constant trickle of seawater pumped up from ocean. 题中空格前remain与文中D段第四行kept替换，所以答案moist。
【原文参考依据-E段倒数第二句】This combination ensures that visible light can stream through to the plants, maximizing the rate of plant growth through photosynthesis but at the same time heat from the infrared radiation is trapped the sapce between the layers, and kept away from the plants.
【原文参考依据-F段4-5行】The condenser is a metal surface kept cool by still more seawater. \\ Drops of pure distilled water flow into a tank for irrigating the crop.
36. pure distilled water
【原文参考依据-F段末句】Drops of pure distilled water form on the condenser and flow into a tank for irrigating the crops. 没有pure 可以，但在符合字数限制，符合语法的状况下，都添会更好。
【原文参考依据-G段5-6行】On windless days, fans ensure a constant flow of air through the greenhouse.
38. solar panels
【原文参考依据-G段末句】'we can run the entire operation off one13-amp plug, and in the future we could make it entirely independent of the grid, powered from a few solar panels.'
39. construction costs
【原文参考依据-H段首句】Critics point out that construction costs of around $4 a square foot are quite high.$4 a square foot 的意思是：一平方英尺4美元
【原文参考依据-末尾】Besides it really suggests an environmentallly-friendly way of providing air conditioning on a scale large enough to cool large greenhouses where crops can be grown despite the high outside temperatures.
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